It is a dermatological procedure that removes the outer layers of the skin and is indicated to improve the appearance and texture of it. It is a form of exfoliation that uses substances or technology to renew the dermal layers.
It is a treatment that makes a selective exfoliation of the skin to a greater or lesser depth. There are different types, each focused on a treatment and to achieve a different result.
Peeling is a frequent tool in aesthetic cabinets. It can be performed on any part of the body and for various skin conditions such as acne marks, photo-aging, spots, stretch marks, scars, hyperkeratosis, roughness, etc.
The intensity of the peeling (superficial, medium or deep) is determined by the type of skin, the problem to be corrected by the patient, the results and the duration sought with the treatment. They should always be indicated and performed by a dermatology specialist.
What are they for?
Remove damaged and dead cells.
Eliminate the accumulation of pigments produced by solar radiation.
Promote tissue regeneration to result in a rejuvenated epidermis.
Reactivate collagen and promote cell regeneration.
In this way a thinner skin is achieved: this reduces the thickness of wrinkles and increases elasticity and facial tone.
The results are visible: it improves fine wrinkles around the eyes, wrinkles associated with sun damage, spots, and signs of skin aging, scars, acne and peribucal wrinkles.
Are there different types of peeling?
Yes, according to the intensity and depth determined by the substance to be chosen to perform the chemical peel (superficial, medium or deep).
Besides, according to the thickness of the skin, the chemical peel is complemented with the mechanical peeling more commonly called diamond-tipped microdermabrasion (also known as Micropeel or Microdermopeel).
Types of peeling
There are different types of peelings, which vary in intensity depending on how you are doing them. They are chemical, mechanical, ultrasonic and Dermapen peels (combination of microdermabrasion and mesotherapy).
It is the peel that is performed by using exfoliating creams or abrasive acids, which MUST ABSOLUTELY be used only by specialists (Dermatologists or Plastic Surgeons) and these are capable of removing the superficial layers of the skin to generate various tissue changes how to remove spots, sagging, skin thickening, fine wrinkles, etc.
It is the peeling performed with ultrasound to clean the skin deeply, unclog pores, eliminate open and closed comedones, reduce imperfections and promote the penetration of the active ingredients placed.
It is the peeling that is done with brushes, lathes, crystals, sandpaper or stone. Microdermabrasion devices, such as the diamond tip, are an example of mechanical peeling.
Its objective is to erode the superficial layers of skin to promote regeneration, minimize wrinkles and alterations, while encouraging the creation of new collagen. It gives excellent results in smoothing vertical wrinkles such as bar codes and frown.
The physical peels are divided into two, those made by external natural agents such as sun and wind, and those made by CO2 and Erbium resurfacing lasers.
Both the CO2 and Erbium lasers serve to improve the overall appearance of the skin, rejuvenate the tissue, remove spots, expression lines, remove injured regions, stimulate the production of collagen and elastin, among many other things.
They work on the epidermis level exerting gentle and moderate exfoliation
They are used to achieve facial cleansing, reduction of very fine wrinkles, elimination of minor blemishes, control sebaceous secretion and soften the complexion.
Softer acids such as salicylic and glycolic, or enzymatic peels are commonly used. Diamond-tipped microdermabrasion can fall into this category.
They do not generate visible peeling or lasting redness, it can be used more frequently than the others, with one session being feasible every 15 days.
They act on the junction between the epidermis and the dermis, and at the level of the superficial dermis.
They are made with acids with greater penetration, to combat photoaging, acne lesions, moderate to intense spots, peri-oral wrinkles, etc. Mandelic or retinoic acid are some of those used in medium peels, as well as TCA (trichloroacetic acid), in concentrations between 20% and 35%.
They generate a slight peeling of the skin and a greater redness than the superficial one, but it does not alter the daily life of the patient. The frequency of application is one session per month or every 6 weeks depending on the acid used.
They act at the level of the middle and deep dermis. This type of peeling is not performed in an aesthetic cabinet since it can reach the blood spot.
They are performed to eliminate wrinkles and deep grooves, severe marks, scars or precancerous elements. It generates an important redness and peeling that lasts many days, so it alters the patient’s daily life. A session is recommended, and can be repeated only after two months.
The most commonly used acid in deep peeling is phenol, which brightens the skin intensely and fights severe aging. It is a very strong acid and its application implies a minimum recovery period of 2 weeks.
General benefits of peeling
It offers an excellent non-surgical alternative for skin aging.
Of course, it depends on the type of peel used and its intensity is that better results are obtained.
A peel with mild acid improves the texture of the complexion and matches the tone while softening fine lines. Several sessions must be done to achieve quite noticeable effects.
In contrast, a moderate-intensity peel offers greater visible changes from the first session, but it also implies a high risk of photosensitivity for at least one month.
It should be noted that the results of the peels are not permanent, since they do not stop the passage of time and the consequent natural aging of the human being. At the same time, it affects the sun damage to which the skin is exposed, which can reverse the improvements obtained and make the skin return to the same as at the beginning of the treatment.
The greater the intensity of the peeling performed, the greater the risk of presenting side effects.
Erythema: the redness ranges from mild to severe depending on the type of peeling performed. This may last a few hours or take weeks to disappear.
Changes in skin color: the treated regions may become lighter or darker than the surrounding skin.
Superficial to medium peels can generate hyperpigmentation and deep hypopigmentation. Appearance of scabs or peeling: they usually appear after erythema, and their duration depends on the type of peeling performed.
Edema: There may be a slight edema around the eyes.
Scars: rarely deep peels can cause scars (on the lower part of the face).
Allergies: very rarely, because acids are not allergenic compounds.
Infections: Patients with a history of herpes outbreaks are susceptible to outbreaks after a peel. Fungal or bacterial infections may also occur.
Solar sensitivity: new skin cells that are generated after peeling do not have enough pigmentation to protect themselves from the sun, so they are more sensitive for some time.